Using abbreviations

Non-native academic writers at all levels, from undergraduates to researchers, often find the manner of placing and presenting in-text abbreviations of regularly used terms such as European Union (EU), radio frequency Identification (RFID), printed circuit board (PCB), etc., somewhat challenging. Consequently, several questions arise:

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Open reference book

Citing authors

When citing authors in academic papers in-text citations vary, with some systems employing numbering while others state the authors’ names and dates of publication. For those employing the Harvard Referencing System the reader is able to view the names of some or all of the cited authors’ names, and the date of the publication, without needing to refer directly to the referencing section of the document. One problem which can occur in this case is the over-insertion of the same authors and dates in concurrent streams of text, particularly when no other publications have been mentioned to cloud the reader’s understanding of whose ideas or assertions are being presented.

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Proofreading by hand

Proofreading strategies

Once your written document has been completed, the final task that remains is to use your proofreading strategies to check the text for errors, inconsistencies and style. This process is crucial to ensure that your text engages the reader and captures their attention, because if proofreading strategies are overlooked or dismissed then you run the risk of the reader rejecting your article, assignment or dissertation due to inaccuracies or poor presentation.

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British vs American suffixes

>British and American English are very similar in most respects. However, there are some small but important differences in the way that some vocabulary groups are formed. In this article we will explore the role of suffixes. For example, whereas in British English you write centre, litre and theatre; in American English you would need to change the -re suffixes to -er. For example, center, liter and theater.

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